Terminology for Hash Rosin
Below are some terms that are commonly used in the cannabis indstry when speaking about hash, rosin, cannabinoids, terpenes and accessories
kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid | Noun
A chemical compound found in cannabis and produced by the human body that interacts with our bodies’ receptors. Endocannabinoids, or internally produced cannabinoids, are an essential component of our bodies’ endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is largely responsible for maintaining internal balance. Phytocannabinoids, or marijuana cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant, mimic the functions of our endocannabinoids and are responsible for the euphoric effects associated with THC.
What are Cannabinoids?
Cannabinoids are a class of lipophilic molecules that interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS helps the body maintain functional balance through its three main components: “messenger” molecules that our bodies synthesize, the receptors these molecules bind to, and the enzymes that break them down.
Pain, stress, appetite, energy metabolism, cardiovascular function, reward and motivation, reproduction, and sleep are just a few of the body’s functions that cannabinoids impact by acting on the ECS. The potential health benefits of cannabinoids are numerous and include inflammation reduction and nausea control.
te-trə-ˌhī-drə-kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯl-ik ˈa-səd | Noun
The most common cannabinoid found in the raw cannabis plant. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, or THCA, is non-intoxicating but converts into intoxicating THC when exposed to heat through a process called decarboxylation. Research indicates that THCA has its own medicinal potential in anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-emetic treatments.
THCA Effects and Medical Uses
THCA offers a range of useful medicinal applications. The therapeutic value of THCA has been somewhat overlooked in favor of cannabinoids such as THC and CBD. THCA benefits include anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-tumor, neuroprotective, and anti-emetic properties.
THCA exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1, COX-2), and modulates immune activity through metabolic pathways other than CB1 and CB2. It can also act as a potent neuroprotectant by activating Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) pathways, and may, along with other non-THC
cannabinoids, inhibit prostate cancer growth
ˈte-trə-ˌhī-drə-kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯl | Noun
An intoxicating and psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the most well-known cannabinoid in the plant and is capable of inducing a variety of sensory and psychological effects, including mild reverie, euphoria, increased sensory awareness, and some therapeutic benefits. Historically, cannabis has been cultivated for its euphoric and therapeutic effects, which are largely attributed to the THC molecule.
What is THC?
The cannabis world almost unanimously defines delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the most well-known cannabinoid, responsible for the cannabis “high.” This definition, though undeniably complicated by what we know about the effects of other cannabinoids, is mostly accurate.
In recent years, cannabidiol (CBD) has received more attention for its therapeutic potential, but THC is arguably still the most famous (and certainly the most infamous) cannabinoid. And while THC is not solely responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis, it is the primary psychoactive component.
What are the effects of THC?
You may have heard the term “entourage effect” (or “ensemble effect”, as preferred by some cannabis experts). While the entourage effect typically refers to the way cannabis terpenes enhance the desired outcomes of cannabinoids, we can also use the term to describe the way cannabinoids magnify the effects of one another.
Whole-plant cannabis or cannabis extracts generally have a greater medicinal value than CBD or THC isolates because they contain a full spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes, each providing a unique contribution to the therapeutic effect, such as anti-inflammation. Some medical cannabis patients may respond more positively to pure CBD or pure THC, but for some medical outcomes like pain relief, THC and CBD may be synergistic.
ˈdel-tə, 8ˈte-trə-ˌhī-drə-kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯl | Noun
Delta-8-THC is a minor cannabinoid, occurring in the plant in very small concentrations. Delta-8-THC is also known to be a degraded form of THC, and is not directly produced by cannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes within the plant. When THC is stored for a period of time, it degrades into delta-8-THC. Commercial growers and extractors use selective breeding and molecular isolation to access greater quantities of delta-8-THC.
A range of preclinical and clinical studies are uncovering some of the unique properties and therapeutic potential of delta-8-THC.
Pain and Anti-Inflammatory Effects
A 2018 preclinical study published in “Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research” found that delta-8-THC may help to diminish pain and inflammation in corneal injury in mice. The research found that delta-8-THC, applied topically, assisted in pain reduction, and reduced inflammation through its effects on the CB1 receptors. Another preclinical study on rats also reported that delta-8-THC delivers pain relief, but that tolerance to the cannabinoid developed rapidly.
According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, delta-8-THC displays anxiety-reducing qualities similar to delta-9-THC. While there is currently little clinical literature investigating its anti-anxiety potential, anecdotal reports claim that the consumption of delta-8-THC results in a very calm, focused high, without the anxiety that can sometimes accompany delta-9-THC.
The nausea fighting potential of delta-8-THC was reported in a 1995 study published in “Life Sciences.” The study followed eight pediatric cancer patients over two years and found that no vomiting occurred when patients ingested delta-8-THC before and for 24 hours after cancer treatment. The study reported very few side effects.
Delta-8-THC may also help to stimulate the appetite. Research conducted on mice and published in a 2004 edition of “Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior” found that a low dose of delta-8-THC administered to mice over 50 days resulted in a 22% increase in food intake compared with controls. The research also reported that delta-8-THC increased food intake significantly more than delta-9-THC, which is a reputed appetite stimulant.
kan-ə-bī-nȯl | Noun
The cannabinoid into which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) breaks down after prolonged periods of time. The degradation can be accelerated by exposing dried plant matter to oxygen and heat. Cannabinol (CBN) is only mildly intoxicating; with current research indicating it may only be one-fourth (¼) the potency of THC.
CBN Benefits and Medical Uses
CBN may be a result of THC degradation, but it also presents new pathways to exploration of medical cannabis use. THC and CBD have both become highly valued for their therapeutic versatility in recent years. CBN, though far less well known than CBD or THC, also boasts an impressive list of potential medical uses.
CBN remains primarily valued as a potent sleep aid. According to an analysis from Steep Hill Labs, 5 mg of CBN is as effective as10-mg of diazepam, a prominent pharmaceutical sedative. As an anti-insomnia medicine, CBN is not only potent, but also easy to obtain, as long as you have access to cannabis. If you’re finding it difficult to locate a CBN-heavy cannabis product (which, given their current rarity on the market, is more than likely) all you have to do is store some cannabis in a non-airtight container and let it sit for a few weeks or months.
In addition to its effectiveness as a sleep aid, CBN has recently been identified as a potential painkiller. As previously mentioned, CBN has different mechanisms of action than CBD and THC. It is considered a weak CB1 partial agonist, which means it binds directly to the receptor but induces much lower effects compared to a full agonist. In fact, CBN has been shown to only produce approximately 10% of the activity of THC. Rather than alleviate pain by way of CB1 or CB2 receptors, CBN releases peptides from sensory nerves, activating an alternative nerve mechanism to achieve the same ends.
CBN is one of several cannabinoids with the potential to fight bacteria. When tested on multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria, CBN was highly effective, and may prove a viable option for reducing methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) bacteria in the future.
Cannabinoids can also be effective anti-inflammatories. CBN, though not as widely used for anti-inflammatory purposes as CBD or THC, may have similar abilities to treat a variety of inflammatory ailments. A 2009 study on cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, identified CBN as a possible treatment for inflammatory disorders such as allergic asthma. Research has also revealed that CBN can treat glaucoma by reducing inflammation that causes intraocular pressure.
Studies dating back to the 1970s identify CBN as an effective treatment against convulsive illnesses. Similar to CBD and THC, CBN has the potential to reduce seizures and epileptic symptoms. Patients should be warned, however, that CBN’s anti-convulsive properties may be more effective in conjunction with CBD and THC than as an isolated compound.
Bone Cell Growth Stimulant
CBN ticks all the usual boxes of a medicinal cannabinoid — pain relief, anti-inflammation, appetite stimulation, etc. But it may also stimulate bone marrow cell growth. By gathering and modulating stem cells, CBN may be an effective cannabinoid in creating bone tissue and healing bone fractures.
In addition to the potential medical uses already covered, CBN may be an effective appetite stimulant. A 2012 study found that rats administered with CBN showed a sizable increase in both quantity and duration of feeding. These findings present the possibility of using CBN as a non-intoxicating alternative to THC appetite stimulants.
kan-ə-bə-ˈdī-ˌȯl | Noun
If you’re new to cannabis, you may be wondering about the meaning of CBD. CBD stands for cannabidiol.It is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis. Cannabidiol is the second-most abundant cannabinoid in the plant after tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It has many potential therapeutic benefits, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-anxiety, and seizure-suppressant properties. CBD can be sourced from both marijuana and hemp plants.
Consumers report using CBD for a huge variety of health and wellness reasons, but significantly more research is needed to determine the symptoms and ailments it can most successfully treat. Currently, 66 clinical trials are examining the effectiveness of CBD for a variety of conditions.
If you’re using CBD, it’s a good idea to do some research to inform your dosage. Young children can tolerate daily doses of up to 20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. For a 175-pound (79.4-kilogram) adult, that’s more than 1,500 milligrams. The most common side effect of large doses of CBD is sleepiness.
Research into CBD has been conducted for the following conditions.
Pain Relief / Anti-inflammation
According to research, when CBD is introduced to our endocannabinoid system, it prevents the body from absorbing a pain-regulating compound known as anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid. Inhibiting the absorption of this compound shunts excess quantities into the bloodstream that in turn, may reduce pain. CBD may also target specific spinal receptors helping to suppress pain and inflammation. In both human and animal models, CBD seems to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties.
Epilepsy and seizures
One of CBD’s chief benefits is its anticonvulsant properties. CBD has been documented as a potential antiepileptic since 1881; it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating severe types of childhood epilepsy in 2018. However, its anticonvulsant mechanisms are still not fully understood. One possible explanation for CBD’s perceived neuroprotective effects is its interaction with NMDA receptors, which play a key role in the type of neuronal activity that is a hallmark of epilepsy.
In 2015 University of Montreal researchers conducted a comprehensive review of CBD as an intervention for addictive behaviors. They concluded that CBD might have a beneficial impact on opioid, cocaine, and psychostimulant addiction. In addition, studies suggest that CBD may also be helpful in the treatment of tobacco addiction. One reason may be CBD’s potential ability to ease the anxiety that leads people to crave drugs such as heroin.
A common, non-intoxicating cannabinoid in the cannabis plant. CBDA (or cannabidiolic acid) is the precursor of cannabidiol (CBD) and can be found in trichomes on raw and uncured cannabis.
What’s the difference between CBD and CBDA?
In terms of CBDA vs CBD, Cannabidiolic acid is like the raw form of cannabidiol. CBDA converts to CBD through a process called decarboxylation.
A non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant that is similar to cannabidiol (CBD). CBDV interacts with components of the endocannabinoid system to regulate brain function, and it shows strong promise in the treatment of epilepsy.
Medical Benefits of CBDV
To date, research suggests that CBDV could be helpful in treating seizures, Crohn’s disease, symptoms related to HIV/AIDS, and multiple sclerosis. Important studies of CBDV include:
- In 2013, researchers concluded that CBDV, like THC, “may have therapeutic potential in reducing nausea.”
- A 2018 report concluded that CBDV could be a helpful form of treatment for autism spectrum disorder.
- A 2018 article found that CBDV helped improve the health of mice with Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder with a range of behavioral and physiological symptoms.
- In 2019, researchers found that CBDV helped improve cognitive, motor, and neurological functions linked to certain types of genetic disorders.
- Researchers recently published a study suggesting that CBDV could help improve muscle quality and help slow muscle degeneration linked to Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
A non-intoxicating cannabinoid that possesses robust anti-inflammatory properties and binds to the body’s TRPA1 receptor, a lesser-known component of the endocannabinoid system.
What is CBC?
Cannabichromene (CBC) is a prominent cannabinoid in medical research and may offer potency as a cancer fighter due to its natural interaction with the body’s endocannabinoid system. A 2014 literature review published in the journal Oncotarget concluded that cannabinoids such as CBC “exert a direct anti-proliferative effect on tumors of different origin.”
Different forms of cannabichromene available for purchase include CBC cream, CBC extract, and CBC oil, along with the naturally occurring CBC in marijuana. The cream, in particular, may be helpful for treating acne, according to a 2016 study published in Experimental Dermatology. Once again, the anti-inflammatory qualities of cannabichromene may offer hope, this time by soothing the sebaceous glands of the skin that may secrete excessive oil, thus leading to acne.
More specifically categorised as a cannabinoid acid, CBCA (cannabichromenic acid) represents a step in the biosynthetic pathway from precursor molecules to “activated” cannabinoids. What makes a cannabinoid acid different from a cannabinoid? The former features an additional carboxyl group that allows it to exert different effects in the body.
Just like most cannabinoids created through enzymatic reactions, CBCA stems from the “mother cannabinoid” CBGA. A specialised enzyme known as cannabichromenic acid synthase (CBCAS) catalyses a reaction that turns CBGA into CBCA. The cannabinoid acid then acts as a precursor to two other cannabinoids.
The removal of carbon dioxide through heat exposure—decarboxylation—converts CBCA into the cannabinoid CBC. Exposure to UV rays instead turns CBCA into cannabicycloclic acid (CBLA). Both of these end products can later convert into cannabicyclol (CBL) through similar processes.
Although CBC comes second in this reaction, researchers identified the cannabinoid first in 1966, two years prior to the chemical isolation of CBCA. CBC ranks as one of four major phytocannabinoids, alongside THC, CBD, and CBG. However, these three counterparts are produced in varying quantities in the trichomes of cannabis flowers.
Interestingly, CBC starts to form in cannabis plants before the flowering stage even begins. CBC appears at peak levels shortly after the seedling phase, meaning the enzymatic conversion of CBCA into CBC occurs very early on in the growing cycle. Even during peak production, CBC levels rarely exceed 0.2–0.3% by dry weight in most strains.
CBC-like compounds occur elsewhere in the plant kingdom. Molecules extremely close in molecular structure to the cannabinoid have been identified in the traditional Chinese plant species Rhododendron anthopogonoides.
Researchers haven’t spent much time looking into the side effects of CBCA, most likely due to its low concentrations in cannabis cultivars and to research restrictions on the plant. However, they have invested time and effort into examining the properties of CBC itself.
No evidence currently shows CBC to produce any notable side effects. Although, we’ll need to wait for future studies to determine if the same applies to CBCA.
Kanə-bīsək -lōl | Noun
Cannabicyclol, commonly referred to by its abbreviation CBL, is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis plants.
What is CBL?
The CBL cannabinoid is formed when cannabichromene (CBC) is exposed to environmental changes, most notably light. According to Steep Hill Labs, cannabis plants produce only a very small amount of CBL.
Some in the broader cannabis community believe that cannabicyclol may have medicinal or therapeutic properties, but not enough research has been done to prove this. In fact, although CBL is regularly found in many varieties of cannabis, scientists have not yet determined how it interacts with receptors in the human body.
Kanə-bīsək -lōlik asəd | Noun
A rare, non-intoxicating compound that originates as cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) then converts to cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA) when cannabis is exposed to natural environmental changes during storage. CBLA has been studied for its anti-inflammatory properties, among other potential benefits.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis. CBG has many potential therapeutic benefits, including antibacterial, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory qualities. Cannabigerol sourced from hemp plants is legal in most countries as it contains less than 0.3% THC.
Cannabigerol (CBG) was first discovered by Yehiel Gaoni and Raphael Mechoulam in 1964. It is one of more than 100 cannabinoids present in cannabis. Interest in CBG is on the rise due to its non-psychoactive properties and pharmacological potential.
Potential Medical Uses
After its discovery in 1964, CBG research progressed at a relatively slow pace due to its low concentration in most cannabis plants. In recent years, however, a bevy of studies has begun uncovering its pharmacological properties and potential medical uses.
Inflammation and oxidative stress are both contributors to neurodegeneration, which is linked to diseases such as Alzheimer’s. According to a 2018 test-tube study published in the “International Journal of Molecular Science,” CBD may protect against both neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, possibly helping to prevent cell loss
Like so many of its cannabinoid cousins, CBG boasts potential anti-inflammatory characteristics. Inflammatory bowel disease, which refers to disorders associated with chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, may benefit from treatment with CBG. A 2013 preclinical study on mice found that CBG reduced bowel inflammation , nitric oxide production (which is generated at high levels in certain types of inflammation), and oxidative stress in intestinal cells. Other research on mice has demonstrated that CBG may help to address inflammation or suppress immune responses in diseases characterized by inflammatory or autoimmune components.
CBG also boasts tumor-inhibiting properties. A 2014 study published in “Carcinogenesis” tested the effects of CBG in a mouse model of colon cancer. CBG was found to promote cancer cell death and inhibit the growth of tumors, hampering the progression of colon cancer. Clinical research will provide more significant insights into whether these results can be translated into cancer treatment for humans.
Individuals living with AIDS and cancer commonly experience anorexia, or reduced appetite, and cachexia, which refers to weakness or wasting of the body. CBG represents a non-psychoactive alternative to THC that may stimulate appetite. A 2017 study published in “Behavioral Pharmacology” found that purified CBG works as an appetite stimulant in rats, increasing the number of meals consumed, along with the cumulative size of the meals. CBG incorporated into a botanical drug substance appeared to work even more effectively than CBG as an isolate.
Antiseptic and antibacterial
MRSA, or Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a superbug capable of causing infections that are very difficult to treat in humans. CBG (along with CBD, CBC, THC and CBN) possesses antibacterial and antiseptic qualities that have shown promise in treating MRSA. A 2008 study published in the “Journal of Natural Products” found that CBG displayed highly potent activity against a strain of MRSA. However, its mechanism of action remains elusive.
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. CBG has been shown to help lower intraocular pressure, which causes much of the damage from glaucoma. In a 2009 study published in the “Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics,” CBG and THC were both found to help relieve pressure in the eye. The study also found that, unlike THC, CBG did not affect certain phases of sleep.
Kanə-bə-ge-ralˈik asəd | Noun
Cannabigerolic acid (also known as CBGA) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid that is the precursor for THC, CBD, and several other common cannabinoids. Enzymes known as synthases are responsible for converting the CBGA cannabinoid into molecules such as THCA, the raw, unactivated molecule that converts to THC when heat is applied.
Benefits of CBG
CBG interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system and shows significant therapeutic potential. While research into the cannabinoid is still early, CBG shows promise as an anti-inflammatory, mood regulator, cancer fighter, and appetite stimulant. It also has potent antibacterial properties.
ˈtər-ˌpēns | Noun
Organic compounds that provide aroma and flavor in cannabis and a variety of other organisms, including plants. Terpenes are responsible for the aroma and flavors of cannabis, and influence its effects by interacting with cannabinoids. Terpenes are formed inside cannabis trichomes, and their relative presence is directly affected by both the spectrum and intensity of light exposure.
Scientifically speaking, terpenes are defined as “a large class of hydrocarbon compounds constructed from five-carbon isoprene units that are combined to produce a great variety of skeletons.” These basic molecular “skeletons” are “then acted upon by various enzymes to add functionality and altered oxidation,” processes that ultimately lead to the wide variety of effects produced by terpenes.
Terpenes are aromatic molecules responsible for the unique aroma of each cannabis cultivar. The appealing aromas and flavors we experience when we consume cannabis are all thanks to terpenes. Each cannabis cultivar has its own unique aroma because it has its own distinct terpene content. Whether you smoke cannabis flower, dab concentrates, or vaporize either, these molecules are hard at work delivering tasty citrus, diesel, woody, pine, skunky, coffee, spicey, herbal, or tropical flavors to your palate.
ka-rēˈō-fī-ˈlēn | Noun
Caryophyllene, more formally known as beta or b caryophyllene, is an extremely common terpene found in cannabis that is known for its herbal spiciness with hints of wood. It is most commonly found in black pepper, cinnamon, and hops. Caryophyllene is a potent component in anti-inflammatory salves and topicals and also has potential anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic properties. Caryophyllene is unique because of its ability to bind to CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system after being consumed orally.
What does the terpene caryophyllene do?
Much promising research has been conducted on animals to uncover various caryophyllene effects, most notably its possible therapeutic usages. However, more research is needed to understand this terpene’s effects on human health, both physical and mental. One notable 2015 study, conducted on human cells and published in the journal Molecules, demonstrated caryophyllene’s potential as an anticancer, antimicrobial, and antioxidant agent. Although these findings are very promising, further research in humans is necessary to fully define the best medical uses for caryophyllene.
Anti-inflammatory: Caryophyllene has been shown to have possible anti-inflammatory effects in ailments such as arthritis. One study, published in 2018 in the British Journal of Pharmacology, observed the response rate of the terpene’s anti-inflammatory properties in rats with induced arthritis. Researchers discovered that doses of 215 milligrams and 430 mg of caryophyllene given to both healthy and arthritic rats reduced the swelling of lymph nodes and did not modify the metabolism of the healthy rats.
Anticancer: Citing the need for further research, scientists have nonetheless hailed caryophyllene as reducing the growth and proliferation of cancer cells as well as enhancing the effectiveness of some cancer treatments according to a 2016 study published in the journal Cancer Medicine.
Sleep: In combination with other terpenes, caryophyllene has shown promise as a sedative. A 2012 study published in the journal Pharmaceutical Biology found that mice treated with essential oil containing caryophyllene experienced increased sleep time as well as decreased locomotion and body temperature.
Pain: A 2013 study published in the European Journal of Pain found that when mice exposed to capsaicin were injected with caryophyllene, they experienced pain relief. The terpene was also found to enhance the pain-relieving properties of low doses of morphine.
Diabetes: When it comes to other potential beta-caryophyllene benefits, there is evidence indicating that the terpene, along with standard diabetic medicine, helps balance glucose levels in rats with diabetes, according to a 2014 study published in the journal Acta Histochemica.
Myrcene, also sometimes called beta myrcene, is a monoterpene and a significant component of numerous plants and fruits. These include cannabis, ylang-ylang, bay, parsley, wild thyme, lemongrass, hops,cardamom, and the mango fruit. While myrcene is present in many plants, commercial production comes from beta-pinene, another terpene found primarily in turpentine. Myrcene is notable as the most prominent terpene contained in cannabis, according to a 1997 study conducted by the Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture. The study reported that myrcene comprises up to 65% of the terpene contentin a cannabis plant.
The most abundant terpene in cannabis, myrcene may be recognizable for its earthy scent and flavor profile. Some perceive a balsam fragrance in the terpene, while others describe it as smelling of clove or musk. As a component of hops used in beer, myrcene may be experienced as having a peppery or spicy taste. Like other terpenes, myrcene is theorized to be part of the entourage effect, which means that it works in conjunction with cannabinoids to potentially treat a multitude of physical and mental ailments.
ˌtərˈpinᵊlˌēn | Noun
A common terpene present in the cannabis plant that is recognizable for its woody aroma along with citrus and floral notes. Also referred to as alpha terpinolene, the terpene’s effects may be mildly to moderately sedative. The terpene occurs naturally in sage, lilac, rosemary, conifer trees, apple trees, and tea trees and is a constituent of many essential oils. Early research shows terpinolene benefits may include antifungal, antibacterial, and anticancer properties in addition to potentially calming the central nervous system.
What are the effects of terpinolene?
Antifungal: Tea tree oil, which contains terpinolene, has been widely studied for its potent antifungal effects on conditions ranging from ringworm to toenail fungus. One such study published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology in 2015 established a link between tea tree oil and antifungal activity in Botrytis cinerea, a fungus that affects plants such as wine grapes.
Another study in 1996 conducted by the Skin Pharmacology Society concluded that tea tree oil may be effective in combating certain yeast fungi, as well as conditions such as dandruff and fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes.
Antibacterial: As a component of essential oil, terpinolene has demonstrated antibacterial and antimicrobial activity, according to a 2010 study from the journal Natural Product Research. The researchers found that the test oil containing terpinolene at a level of six percent (6%) inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, a bacterium found in soil and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans.
Anticancer: One 2013 Turkish study that was performed on animals explored a possible connection between terpinolene and the destruction of cancerous cells. The researchers wrote, “Our findings clearly demonstrate that TPO (terpinolene) is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumor cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent, which needs to be further studied.” These results indicate that terpinolene may also provide defenses against inflammation and oxidative damage, which are both associated with cancer. That said, much more research is needed.
Sedative: The Journal of Natural Medicines featured a 2013 study conducted on animals in which terpinolene was an active ingredient of essential oil. The subjects of the study inhaled the essential oil and consequently experienced a sedative effect after nasal absorption into the body.
hyüm-yü-lēn | Noun
Humulene, also known as alpha humulene or a-humulene, is a terpene classified as a monocyclic sesquiterpene. The humulene terpene is a key component of the essential oil from the flowering cone of the hops plant. Humulene is present in plants including cannabis and cannabis-derived essential oils in high concentrations, sometimes as high as 40 percent. The terpene is currently under exploration for its prospects as an anti-inflammatory agent with a capacity to treat allergies.
What is humulene good for?
Scientific studies have investigated whether humulene effects include anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and other medical benefits. Results have been encouraging, but further research is needed to establish a solid relationship between humulene and beneficial effects on health.
Anti-inflammatory: Many terpenes present in cannabis, including citronellol, have shown promise in treating inflammatory conditions. Humulene is among the terpenes that may exhibit anti-inflammatory action, as demonstrated in a 2007 study published in the European Journal of Pharmacology, which reported that humulene and caryophyllene, as elements of Cordia verbenacea oil, “might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseases.”
Further support for humulene’s health benefits were published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in 2009. This study, conducted in animals, investigated humulene’s potential to combat allergies. Interestingly, the study authors concluded that the terpene could be effective when administered orally or inhaled as an aerosol. The effectiveness of oral humulene was earlier confirmed by a 2008 study in the journal Planta Medica, which also demonstrated that humulene is absorbed when applied topically.
Antitumor: As a component of balsam fir oil, humulene has been tested for its efficacy in fighting several types of cancerous cells. One 2003 study published in Planta Medica found that the humulene in balsam fir oil may have the potential to kill cancer cells by turning off their antioxidant processes, thus arresting tumor growth. Again, much more research is needed before coming to any conclusions.
Learn More: https://weedmaps.com/learn/dictionary/humulene/
In addition to its prominent presence in many varieties of cannabis, limonene occurs naturally in mint, juniper, rosemary, pine, and fennel. Some of these sources, such as rosemary, are channeled in essential oil form for therapeutic purposes including scalp massage and in muscle balms. For industrial purposes, limonene has diverse uses: as an organic herbicide, a solvent to remove oil from machinery, and a paint stripper. In traditional medicine, the terpene has been tapped for centuries as a component of remedies for bronchitis, heartburn and gallstones. Modern medicine is now delving into the therapeutic possibilities of limonene and many other terpenes, such as caryophyllene.
What are the Therapeutic Benefits of Limonene?
Limonene is one of the most well-studied terpenes found in cannabis, and has a variety of effects on the immune system. Its antibacterial and antimicrobial effects are well established, and it is currently being studied for its potential to combat mood disorders, diabetes, and cancer among other ailments.
Essential oils that contain limonene are widely used by humans to treat conditions such as anxiety and insomnia. To validate these uses, a 2013 study published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine examined the ability of limonene to reduce depression and anxiety in rodent models of these disorders. Although the researchers found no evidence for the antidepressive effects of limonene, it improved anxiety-like states by interacting with the brain’s serotonin system.
Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory
Using an animal model of ulcerative colitis, a 2017 study published in the journal Molecular Medicine Reports demonstrated limonene’s ability to reduce disease activity and organ damage. These effects were due in part to the terpene’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which have been reported by other researchers as well.
The antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of limonene may partially explain why it consistently reduces pain across several animal models. The limonene terpene even appears to be an effective topical pain reliever, as demonstrated in a 2016 study in the European Journal of Pain.
A 2016 report in the journal Life Sciences examined limonene’s potential as a novel treatment for diabetes. Using cultured cell models, the researchers demonstrated that the terpene was able to enhance the energy expenditure of white fat cells, essentially making them more closely resemble the body’s “good” fat cells (brown adipose). This effect on metabolism could mean a big shift toward burning, rather than storing excess energy inside the body. In fact, Turkish researchers have subsequently shown that limonene can improve symptoms and act as an antioxidant in animal models of diabetes.
Limonene has demonstrated prospective anticancer properties in many studies, including one published in New Zealand journal OncoTargets and Therapy. Researchers experimented on the lung cancer cells of mice and found that limonene inhibited the growth of the cells while suppressing the proliferation of transplanted tumors. Another study, published in 2009 in the Indian Journal of Carcinogenesis, determined that the limonene terpene could be used as a possible treatment for certain types of prostate cancer. In addition, a 2012 study published in the journal Life Sciences, demonstrated that as part of a blood orange oil emulsion, limonene could kill human colon cancer cells. The study went on to assert that this particular emulsion could even offer hope for the prevention of cancer. While these findings are optimistic, clinical trialsexamining limonene’s efficacy in treating humans suffering from cancer are still needed.
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lə-ˈna-lə-ˌwȯl | Noun
A terpene found in spices, flowering plants, and some fungi. Linalool is frequently used as a scent and flavoring agent in addition to serving as an element in pesticides. The linalool terpene is known for its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and stress-relieving properties.
Therapeutic benefits of linalool
The potential linalool effects and benefits are extensive. One of the primary linalool benefits is as a natural tool for stress relief. Researchers are also exploring its potential use to mediate symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
One study published in 2012 in the scientific journal Anaerobe revealed that linalool demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria found in the mouth. As a result, the researchers recommended toothpaste and gargling solutions with low concentrations (less than 0.4 milligrams per milliliter) of linalool.
The Journal of Surgical Research published a study in 2013 examining how linalool could affect an acute lung injury in a mouse. The scientists concluded that linalool inhibited inflammation in the mouse model and could, therefore, be a candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Linalool’s potential as a therapeutic neurological agent is under exploration. One 2015 study published in the journal Neuropharmacology indicated that the terpene could offer hope for Alzheimer’s disease patients. The study found that linalool reversed the neuropathological and behavioral impairments in the brain cells of mice with a model of Alzheimer’s.
As experienced through the inhalation of essential oils, linalool may produce sedative effects. One 2009 study conducted on animals and published in the journal Phytomedicine found that lavender oil containing linalool could induce sedation without affecting motor coordination.
As a component of lavender oil, linalool may also reduce stress in people. A comprehensive study published in 2013 in the journal Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine described how “linalool and linalyl acetate are rapidly absorbed through the skin after topical application with massage and are thought to be able to cause central nervous system depression.” Mild depression of the central nervous system produces a feeling of calm, slowing both the breathing and heart rates while potentially boosting the immune system.
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A monoterpene found in various plants and fruits and bearing a sweet, woodsy scent. Mint, parsley, tarragon, kumquats, and mangos are a few of the natural sources of ocimene. As an acyclic terpene similar to myrcene, ocimene and its chemical variant beta-ocimene are unstable in air and nearly insoluble in water. Ocimene is soluble in some common organic solvents, such as acetone or ethanol.
What is ocimene good for?
Researchers have begun to explore the potential medicinal effects of various terpenes, including the ocimene terpene. This terpene has demonstrated possibilities in having certain antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties, though further research is needed on each.
Antifungal: The Journal of Natural Medicines published a study in 2015 that investigated ocimene as part of a blend of components against yeasts and molds. The researchers determined that ocimene, in concert with other elements, may be useful as an antifungal agent. Specifically, the researchers cited fungal species in humans, including dermatophytosis, a skin fungus commonly referred to as ringworm.
Anti-inflammatory: The ocimene terpene was studied as an element of Oenanthe crocata essential oil in a study published in 2013 in the Food and Chemical Toxicology journal. Researchers noted strong anti-inflammatory activity, as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties, from the oil containing ocimene. Similar to the study from the Journal of Natural Medicines, this study revealed a possible combative effect against ringworm, and researchers recommended the oil for the management of other inflammatory diseases.
Antiviral: The essential oils of seven Lebanese species of trees were studied and analyzed in a 2008 Chemistry & Biodiversity report. Ocimene was among the main constituents of the oils which were examined in vitro for their inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV, a coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, and the herpes simplex virus. Laurus nobilis oil, which contains ocimene, demonstrated an antiviral effect against SARS-CoV in the study, but research beyond the in vitro stage would be useful to determine the full scope of ocimene’s potential antiviral activity.
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Definition: α-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene. It is an alkene and it contains a reactive four-membered ring. It is found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Satureja myrtifolia (also known as Zoufa in some regions). Both enantiomers are known in nature; (1S,5S)- or (−)-α-pinene is more common in European pines, whereas the (1R,5R)- or (+)-α-isomer is more common in North America. The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil and orange peel oil.
A terpene found in the cannabis plant, camphene is most known for its pungent aroma and potential therapeutic benefits; studies indicate that camphene may be effective in treating cardiovascular disease and, when mixed with vitamin C, camphene can be a powerful antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress in cells.
Camphene is a colorless crystal that can be used as a substitute for camphor, as a fragrance or to texturize resins and lacquers. This terpene may also be also used as a food additive to enhance flavors. Essential oils, such as cypress and valerian, may contain trace quantities of camphene. Camphene’s historical uses include fuel for lamps in the 19th century. However, due to the terpene’s potential flammability, it is no longer used in this capacity. After the mid-19th century, kerosene replaced camphene as the fuel of choice for lamps. But at one time, camphene was the primary source of fuel for lamps and preferred as a cheaper alternative to whale oil.
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beta-Pinene (β-pinene) is a monoterpene, an organic compound found in plants. It is one of the two isomers of pinene, the other being α-pinene. It is colorless liquid soluble in alcohol, but not water. It has a woody-green pine-like smell.
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As a bicyclic monoterpene, Delta 3 Carene has a unique propanol ring. The terpene emits an attractive aroma and carries an uncomparable flavor unlike any other terpene isolate on the market. When you choose to enjoy this terpene, you get more than an isolate you can consume on its own; you get a terpene you can add to food, beverages, and more.
What are the attributes of Delta 3 Carene?
The bicyclic monoterpene offers a unique flavor and aroma. It’s sourced from common plants, but offers a special experience to those who decide to give it a try. When you enjoy this terpene, you’ll notice an increase in focus, a decrease in discomfort, and an easier time finding peace. Here are some Delta 3 Carene sources:
Have you ever been walking through the forest and noticed smell of pine trees? How about the smell of cedar? Delta 3 Carene emits a similar aroma with hints of a sweet, woody, pungent smell. Compare this aroma to the sources where this terpene is extracted from, and it makes sense why it would exude these traits. The terpene has been used in a number of industries including food, cosmetic, and medical.
Finally, when you try Delta 3 Carene, you’ll notice a lemony flavor. The taste goes well with beverages, adding a delicious twist to your morning tea or afternoon energy drink. You can also add it to foods like salmon or salads to enhance the meal.
A terpinene group of isomeric hydrocarbons that are classified as monoterpenes. Alpha-terpinene (a-terpinene) derives naturally from cannabis and other plant sources, including cardamom, marjoram, and oils of juniper and eucalyptus. Also produced industrially, a-terpinene is a chemical rearrangement of a-pinene. As a constituent of tea tree oil, a-terpinene may offer antioxidant benefits.
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p-Cymene is a naturally occurring aromatic organic compound. It is classified as an alkylbenzene related to a monoterpene. Its structure consists of a benzene ring para-substituted with a methyl group and an isopropyl group. p-Cymene is insoluble in water, but miscible with organic solvents.
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yü-kə-ˈlip-təl | Noun
Chemically, eucalyptol is a cyclic ether and monoterpenoid with a fresh, minty scent and a spicy yet cooling taste. Eucalyptol may also be referred to by other synonyms, notably cineol. This terpene is present in cannabis as well as sweet basil, rosemary, sage, bay leaves, camphor laurel, tea tree and, of course, eucalyptus. Eucalyptol is known for possessing respiratory and anti-inflammatory medicinal properties.
Therapeutic Benefits of Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol benefits are very well characterized compared to some other, less common terpenes such as fenchol. Studies have shown eucalyptol to have wide-ranging benefits in reducing respiratory symptoms and even sharpening memory.
A 2013 study published in the journal Oncology Reports found that eucalyptol (referred to as cineole in this study) suppressed human colorectal cancer cell growth. Research is still emerging on the topic of cancer and eucalyptol, but the scientists in this study suggested that eucalyptol could be an effective strategy to treat colorectal cancer.
Respiratory & Anti-inflammatory
Many studies, and several placebo-controlled clinical trials (the gold-standard in human research), have thoroughly demonstrated the efficacy of eucalyptol for various respiratory disorders. Patients suffering from asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis, COPD, and even cigarette smoke irritation may all benefit from eucalyptol’s ability to improve lung function and reduce mucus; it may even boost the effectiveness of the flu vaccine. Many of eucalyptol’s benefits derive from its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions.
Inflammation in the brain is a hallmark of, and major contributor to Alzheimer’s Disease. A 2014 study published in Neurochemistry Research found that eucalyptol (cineole) reduced the signs of inflammation caused by amyloid beta peptides (which play a key role in Alzheimer’s). Although this study was done in petri dish models, other human studies have shown that exposure to eucalyptol (in rosemary oil), and the terpene’s presence in the bloodstream were positively correlated with increased cognitive performance.
Gamma-Terpinene is a monoterpene that falls into the category of terpinene, a group of isomeric hydrocarbons. While terpinenes have the same carbon framework and molecular formula, their carbon-carbon double bonds will vary which distinguishes them from one another. Gamma-Terpinene is abundant in many fruits (especially citrus), making up their distinct, sweet scents. When isolated, gamma-terpinene has a colorless, oil consistency with a woody, lemon-lime scent.
Consistency: Liquid, oily
Odor: Wood, lemon, lime
Taste: Bitter, citrus
Boiling point: 183ºC
Flash point: 52ºC
Solubility: 0.00868 mg/L at 22ºC
Density: 0.853 g/cm3
ī-sə-pu̇-lē-gȯl | Noun
A terpene present in cannabis, distinctive for its potent minty aroma and taste. Isopulegol is the chemical precursor to menthol and is also found in lemongrass and geranium. Some potential health benefits of isopulegol include anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and antiviral effects.
Therapeutic Properties of Isopulegol
Compared to other naturally-derived terpenes, little is known about the medicinal properties of isopulegol. However, some scientific studies have investigated the potential of isopulegol to fight inflammation, anxiety, and other disorders.
Isopulegol is a major component in the essential oil from the leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiacaea), or lemon balm; a plant that has long been used in traditional Moroccan medicine. A 2013 study published in the journal Advances in Pharmacological Sciences assessed the ability of Melissa officinalis oil to fight inflammation. The oil, which contained 22% isopulegol, dramatically reduced swelling in animals, which suggests that it could be a useful tool for fighting inflammation.
One German study from 2009 on gastric ulcer models in mice found that isopulegol produced notable gastroprotective effects. The researchers concluded that the terpene may also possess antioxidant properties.
Isopulegol has been tested for its antiviral properties, and one English in vitro study published in 2018 revealed that the terpene could be highly effective against the H1N1 and H1N2 strains of the influenza virus, especially during the virus’s early stages.
A 2007 study conducted by Brazilian researchers indicated that isopulegol produces effects similar to anti-anxiety medications in rodents. However, it also made some depression-like behaviors worse. Although cannabis is commonly used to alleviate anxiety in people, it is unknown how isopulegol contributes to this effect; more research is needed.
By acting, in part, as an antioxidant, isopulegol has shown promise as an anticonvulsant in animal models of seizure. Several other cannabinoids and terpenes found in cannabis have demonstrable anticonvulsant properties; the combined actions of these molecules may very well contribute to the ensemble effect, when it comes to treating epilepsy.
Everything You Need To Know About Caryophyllene Oxide And Its Benefits
As we unravel Cannabis’s unparalleled versatility, we start to understand that other compounds play a crucial role in the plant’s therapeutic outcomes. The combined effect produced from the different chemical compounds like terpenes, cannabinoids, and flavonoids is being closely studied and commonly identified as the entourage effect (Russo, 2011).
Cannabinoids and Terpenes are produced alongside the glandular trichomes of the cannabis flower. Terpenes determine the smell and taste of different strains and play a crucial role in the cannabis experience (Witheley, 2017).
The terpene caryophyllene oxide is present in many spices like basil, black pepper, and oregano, among other cannabis strains. It delivers a spicy, woody, funky warmth similar to cinnamon and cloves aroma.
This article will explore the latest evidence supporting the potential of the terpene Caryophyllene Oxide, its uses, and its benefits within the Cannabis Plant.
What is Caryophyllene Oxide?
Caryophyllene oxide is a sesquiterpene that results from the oxidation of β-caryophyllene, which can occur during the harvest’s cure. It is also considered non-toxic, non-sensitizing, and has been indicated as an anticoagulant with platelets. Caryophyllene oxide is present in plants’ profiles like eucalyptus, lemon balm, oregano, wormwood, rosemary, guava, black pepper, and clove. It has been used in cosmetics, drugs, food preservatives, and for training drug-sniffing dogs by law enforcement.
This terpene interacts with the endocannabinoid system by biding directly with CB2 receptors. Like other terpenes, its benefits include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-bacterial properties. It has been compared to ciclopirox olamine and sulconazole as an antifungal, mainly used in toenail fungus treatment and other skin and nail fungi.
Other Imortant Cannabis Terms
An organic compound produced by the body that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the two most prevalent cannabinoids made by the body. Endocannabinoids share a likeness to plant-produced cannabinoids called phytocannabinoids. Within the human endocannabinoid system, endocannabinoids are responsible for regulating the brain, endocrine, and immune systems and play an essential role in maintaining the body’s homeostasis, or internal regulatory balance.
What Are Endocannabinoids?
Cannabinoids are a class of lipophilic molecules that interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The role of the endocannabinoid system is to help the body maintain functional balance through its three main components: “messenger” molecules that our bodies synthesize, the receptors these molecules bind to, and the enzymes that break them down. Endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, are the body’s “messenger” molecules that trigger homeostatic reactions when they bind to cannabinoid receptors.
There are two main cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are primarily found in the central nervous system, where they regulate a wide variety of brain functions. CB2 receptors are mostly found on immune cells, which circulate throughout the body and brain via the bloodstream. They’re also found on neurons in a few select brain regions. CB2 receptors are involved in pain relief, anti-inflammation, and neuroprotection. The body’s most prominent endocannabinoids, namely anandamide and 2-AG, also activate TRPV proteins, which are responsible for the body’s sensations of heat and cold. The heat you experience from eating a chili pepper, for example, is a TRPV-mediated response. Although the CB and TRPV receptors are the major players in the ECS, there are at least three other receptors (GPR55, GPR18, and GPR119) that may eventually be considered cannabinoid receptors, once their functions are fully understood.
A system of cannabinoid receptors, lipids, and enzymes that performs a large role in maintaining homeostasis, or internal regulatory balance, in many bodily functions. All mammalian vertebrates have an endocannabinoid system, which interacts with endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids that are found in cannabis. The endocannabinoid system’s far-reaching influence is what allows cannabis to provide medicinal benefits for a large range of symptoms.
A vitally important protein in the body’s endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). CB1 is the main target of delta-9-THC, the primary intoxicating ingredient in cannabis. THC is an agonist, or activator of the CB1. THC must bind to the CB1 receptor for a person to feel the cannabinoid’s intoxicating effects.
What Does CB1 Mean?
CB1 stands for “cannabinoid receptor type 1” and is differentiated from CB2, or “cannabinoid receptor type 2.” While both CB1 and CB2 play key roles in your body’s endocannabinoid system, helping to regulate a broad range of bodily functions and effects, CB1 is expressed primarily in the brain, central nervous system, lungs, liver, and kidneys, while CB2 is expressed primarily in your immune system.
What Are CB1 Receptors?
Cannabinoid receptors are an essential component of the body’s endogenous, or endocannabinoid system (ECS). Every function in our body requires balance, or homeostasis, to perform at maximum capacity. The ECS helps the body maintain homeostasis through its three main components: “messenger” molecules called cannabinoids, the receptors that these molecules bind to, and the enzymes that break them down for the body to synthesize. Pain, stress, appetite, energy, metabolism, cardiovascular function, reward and motivation, reproduction, and sleep are all functions that the ECS can modulate.
The body’s most studied cannabinoid receptors are the Cannabinoid-1 and Cannabinoid-2 receptors (CB1 and CB2). CB1 receptors are largely found in the central nervous system, where they regulate a wide variety of brain functions, and sporadically throughout the body including in the skin. Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the two most prominent endogenous cannabinoids, or cannabinoids produced within the body, both bind to CB1 receptors. In this way, CB1 receptors function alongside other endocannabinoid receptors inside your body.
CB1 receptors can also be thought of as THC receptors, as they are the receptor target for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the central intoxicating component of marijuana. This makes the CB1 receptor a major player in the euphoric effects of cannabis.
In humans, the CB1 protein is encoded, or produced by the CNR1 gene. Like all other proteins our bodies make, the “blueprints” for how to build them reside in our DNA. Random or inherited edits or mutations in these blueprints are extremely common. Among the general public, you’ll find people carrying different versions of the CNR1, the CB1 receptor blueprint. This may, at least partially, account for some of the differences in human reactions to cannabis compounds such as THC and CBD.
Repeated use of cannabis causes tolerance through a decrease in CB1 expression throughout the brain. But even 48 hours of abstinence from cannabis can resensitize the system and bring the expression of CB1 proteins back to a level that is on par with non-cannabis users.
An important protein in the body’s endogenous cannabinoid system that is heavily involved in the body’s immune system, and plays an important role in fighting inflammation.
What Are CB2 Receptors?
Cannabinoid receptors are an essential component of the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). Every function in our bodies requires balance, or homeostasis, to perform at maximum capacity. The ECS, which is made up of a network of endocannabinoid receptors, helps the body maintain homeostasis through its three main components: “messenger” molecules called cannabinoids, the receptors that these molecules bind to, and the enzymes that break them down for the body to synthesize. Pain, stress, appetite, energy metabolism, cardiovascular function, reward and motivation, reproduction, and sleep are all functions that the ECS can modulate.
The body’s most studied cannabinoid receptors are cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). While they play slightly different roles in different parts of the body, both receptors are critical to the overall function of the cannabinoid system in the body.
Where Are the CB1 and CB2 Receptors Located?
CB1 receptors are primarily active in your brain, central nervous system, lungs, liver, and kidneys. They are most prominent in the central nervous system, where they interact with neurons.
CB2 receptors, on the other hand, are mostly found on immune cells, which circulate throughout the body and brain via the bloodstream. They’re also found in the spleen, as well as in some bone and liver cells. Unlike CB1, the CB2 receptor isn’t typically found on neurons, except for in the brainstem and hippocampus. However, non-neuronal brain cells called microglia appear to express CB2 receptors in response to inflammation and injury.
A chemical reaction that results from heating a cannabinoid to the point of removing a carboxyl group, thus enhancing the cannabinoid’s ability to interact with the body’s receptors. Decarboxylation is dependent upon time and temperature. For example, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) will naturally decarboxylate into tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over time, or immediately after being exposed to heat.
What Is Decarboxylation?
Cannabis as a raw plant is non-intoxicating and cannot produce strong psychoactive effects. Pop-culture references to eating a bag of cannabis to hide one’s stash and getting super-high afterward just aren’t true. THCA is the compound found in the raw cannabis plant, and in order to have intoxicating properties, it must first be transformed into THC.
THCA will naturally decarboxylate into THC over a long period of time, but many times you want to speed up the process. To do so, you must activate the THCby heating it. The THCA in cannabis is converted to THC when it is smoked or vaporized to absorb via inhalation, or cooked over a period of time to absorb via digestion.
For edible and topical applications, decarboxylation, or decarbing, allows for faster absorption of the cannabinoid. And with edibles, if you don’t decarboxylate your weed, it’s likely it will not reach maximum potency.
Interestingly, when you decarboxylate weed, it also helps reduce the risk of botulism and other microbiological contaminants by removing the moisture from the cannabinoids and decreasing the chance of bacteria growth.
2) Verb. The act of inhaling vaporized cannabis concentrates through a temperature-specific heating method such as a dab rig, e-rig, or vaporizer.
What Are Dabs?
Dabs are portions of cannabis concentrates that you vaporize using a dab rig, through a process known as dabbing. This concentrated form of cannabis is usually much more potent than marijuana flower.
Additionally, because these blobs are typically made up of highly concentrated cannabinoids and terpenes, dabs are sometimes known to be very flavorful. And because you’re supposed to vaporize dabs instead of combust them, dabbing also delivers a very clean taste, if done properly. Popular examples of THC concentrations that can be dabbed include budder, badder, sauce, crystalline, live resin, rosin, and butane hash oil (BHO), or honey oil.
Organic compounds that work synergistically with terpenes to provide aroma and flavor in cannabis and a variety of other organisms, including plants, fruits, and vegetables. Flavonoids are formed inside cannabis trichomes, and may also work synergistically with terpenes and cannabinoids in producing therapeutic effects.
“You can thank flavonoids for the purple hues in your bud.”
“What’s the difference between the flavonoids and terpenes in my weed?”
Flavonoids are aromatic molecules that contribute to the unique aroma, flavor, and color palette of each cannabis cultivar. They are phenolic compounds, a large class of molecules which are frequently involved in the color, protective properties, and nutritional effects of plant-based foods.
Scientists have identified at least 20 flavonoids in cannabis, three of which are unique to the cannabis plant. Many of these flavonoids have been identified as having anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic properties. Though flavonoids are a relatively prominent compound in cannabis, they aren’t nearly as well-known or well-researched within the cannabis sphere as their terpene and cannabinoid counterparts.
Prominent Flavonoids of the Cannabis Plant
Below are the recognized flavonoids in the cannabis plant, as well as their medicinal effects:
Vitexin and Isovitexin: Flavonoids of similar chemical makeup that exhibit a wide range of effects on the body, including antioxidant, anti-analgesic, and neuroprotective properties.
Apigenin: Studies on animals have found apigenin to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, bone-healing, and cancer-fighting properties. Apigenin may even help fight bladder cancer, specifically. It has also been found to reduce anxiety and act as a sedative.
Sylmarin: Another flavonoid with antioxidant and cancer-fighting properties.
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The combined effect of different cannabis compounds that sync with other cannabis compounds to produce a greater effect, rather than relying on an entourage of compounds to create the desired effect.
As long as there are THC, CBD, and terpenoids present, you will experience an ensemble effect and feel the cannabis plant’s therapeutic benefits.
The ensemble of chemicals found in cannabis coincide with each other to create a particular effect.
The role of terpenes and cannabinoids enhance the entourage effect and magnify therapeutic benefits.
CBD and THC act together to boost benefits while subduing negative effects to deliver a balanced entourage effect.
The process by which cannabinoids and terpenes found within cannabis are recovered from the plant material. There are a variety of machines, solvents, and techniques that can be utilized to extract cannabis compounds.
Mechanical Separation vs. Chemical Extraction
Extraction of cannabis components can be performed using either a mechanical (physical separation) or chemical (solvent extraction) process. The physical separation has historically been used in India and the Middle East to make hashish, while solvent extraction was introduced in the late 19th century by North American pharmaceutical companies in order to make reproducible doses of cannabis extracts. Parke, Davis and Co., now owned by Pfizer, developed a cannabis fluid extract in 1896 that stayed on its physicians’ catalog until 1937.
The mechanical extraction process employs pressure and/or physical action to remove the whole trichome. Chemical extractions differ by utilizing a chemical solvent to dissolve the trichomes from the plant.
A cannabis concentrate formed by sifting the trichomes of the cannabis plant in the presence of ice water. Ice hash, (commonly referred to as ice water hash, bubble hash, or wet sift) is typically dabbed, but can also be used to add potency to flower. Ice hash is a modern form of hash making, and just like traditional hash, can be crafted by hand or mechanically.
Ice hash is a solventless concentrate made up of trichomes that are sifted through a series of screens in the presence of water and ice cubes. Ice hash is also known as bubble hash, ice wax, and water sift. These terms are used to describe different forms of ice hash, but there are only subtle differences between the four.
The central goal of making ice hash is to separate trichome glands from all other plant components. Trichomes are glandular appendages on the surface of the cannabis flower that produce and hold the plant’s cannabinoids, terpenes, and other molecules. The purpose of ice hash is to remove all contaminant barriers between the user and the experience that trichomes provide.
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Mechanical separation methods use centrifugal action, gravity separation, and filtration to separate the trichome glands from the plants. The most common methods are the following:
Sieving the ground plant by hand or in a mechanical tumbler composed of screens delicately removes the exposed trichomes, resulting in a powder called kief. Kief can be smoked or vaped either on its own or mixed with flower in a bowl, joint, or bong. Kief can also be further refined using the below warm press method or pressed into hashish for long-term storage.
The Ice-water method, in which plant material, ice, and water are combined in a vessel and agitated until the trichome glands break off the plant and sink to the bottom. This method often results in what’s known as bubble hash, which, in line with its name, bubbles when burned. Like kief, ice-water hash can be smoked on its own or with flower. Particularly high-quality hash can also be dabbed, while lower-quality hash can also be pressed using the below method.
Cold and warm press methods, known as making rosin, use heat and pressure to remove the cannabinoids and terpenes from the plant. Very similar to an oil press, heat and pressure are applied (upwards of 40,000 lbs. of force) to the plant material until the resin glands are excreted from the plant material. Rosin is primarily dabbed or consumed using a dab pen.
Most mechanical methods are inexpensive to set up and operate, but a rosin press can be costly. These methods often lack the efficiencies required for commercial-scale production. The greatest hazard in mechanical separation comes into play when dry-ice (frozen carbon dioxide, or CO2) is used to create kief. If using the dry-ice method, exercise caution to avoid freezer burns.
Solvent-based extractions are the most efficient methods in removing trichomes from the cannabis plant and are the preferred method for the commercial cannabis industry. Trichome glands are non-polar compounds and therefore require a non-polar solvent to remove them from the plant. The main solvents employed are butane, propane, ethanol, and supercritical carbon dioxide.
While these solvents are toxic, flammable, and asphyxiants, they are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have been used in the pharmaceutical and food industry for decades. With the proper lab design of a closed-loop system, and with engineering and administrative controls in place, the chemicals can be used safely for extraction.
Solvents are used in liquid form to essentially “wash” the plant of its therapeutic compounds, after which the solvent must be removed from the solution before it is safe to consume. Processors seek solvents that have extremely low boiling points in order to maintain the full spectrum of compounds removed without denaturing or boiling them off during the process of removing the solvent from the solution.
Solvent-based extractions typically take place under relatively low pressures (15 to150 pounds of pressure per square inch, or PSI) and temperatures (-40 to -70 degrees Fahrenheit, or -40 to -56.67 degrees Celsius), but new methods, using supercritical fluids, utilize much higher pressures (1,000 to 9,000 PSI) and temperatures (35 to 215 degrees Fahrenheit, or 1.67 to 101.67 degrees Celsius) to dissolve the essential compounds.
A concentrate produced by pressing or rubbing together the resin glands of a cannabis plant to form brick, slab, or rolled pieces. Hashish can be chocolate brown, greenish khaki, or sandy brown in color.
Hashish, also referred to simply as hash, is a cannabis concentrate that’s typically inhaled or smoked. Hashish can be made using a few different methods, but the essential steps are removing the trichome glands from a cannabis plant and repeatedly compressing them to form a hardened, solid piece. It’s arguably one of the oldest types of cannabis concentrates, with written texts referring to hashish dating as far back as the 12th and 13th centuries. The varying look and feel of hashish is closely tied to its history and the method used to make it.
Sieved hashish, originating in the Middle East and Central Asia, is made from resin powder that’s been collected from harvested and cured cannabis. Modern methods use fine mesh or silk fabrics to physically sift and separate the trichomes from the plant material. The mesh or fabrics used for sifting have varying pore sizes to help refine and purify the trichomes. The resulting powder, or kief, is then pressed and prepared as hashish bars, slabs, or bricks, which can have a flat, hard, or sometimes chalky appearance.
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Substances in which the more desirable properties of cannabis, namely cannabinoids and terpenes, have been isolated. There are many cannabis concentrates in a variety of formats and textures. Non-active forms of concentrate need to be heated to experience their effects. Concentrates with active cannabinoids, usually distillate, are infused into edibles, tinctures, and topicals to provide effects without the application of heat.
In this context, a food infused with cannabinoids. Marijuana edibles can be brownies, cookies , pasta, and more. Any recipe that calls for butter or oil can be readily infused with cannabis. Edible cannabinoids are processed differently than inhaled cannabinoids. When weed is ingested, cannabinoids enter the bloodstream through the stomach and liver, which increases potency and delays the onset of effects. This process also lengthens the intoxicating effects, sometimes causing them to last from four to six hours.
History of Edibles
The history behind THC edibles is a fascinating one. Historians have traced modern-day edibles back to 1500 BCE in India, where people prepared a beverage known as bhang by combining ground buds and leaves, ghee (clarified butter), and spices.
As time went on, cannabis climbed in popularity across Europe, spurring the 15th century Italian scholar Bartolomeo Platina to publish the very first cookbook, “On Honorable Pleasure and Health (1474),” which featured a cannabis edible recipe that read:
“To make cannabis yourself more commonly used as flax for thread, use a mallet to crush clods collected after a good harvest. Add cannabis to nard oil in an iron pot, crush together over some heat and liquefy into a health drink of cannabis nectar. Carefully treat food and divide for the stomach and the head. Finally, remember everything in excess may be harmful or criminal.
Edibles remained part of cooking around the globe, but it took the legendary Alice B. Toklas, an expatriate living in Paris with her partner, Gertrude Stein, to prove that edibles did not need to be cooked to be enjoyed. Her friends, including Ernest Hemingway, Henri Matisse, and Pablo Picasso, were undoubtedly treated to her creations. Toklas’ recipe achieved fame in the 1954 volume, “The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook” as “Haschich Fudge,” though it contains neither chocolate nor hash:
“Take 1 teaspoon black peppercorns, 1 whole nutmeg, 4 average sticks of cinnamon, 1 teaspoon coriander. These should all be pulverized in a mortar. About a handful each of de-stoned dates, dried figs, shelled almonds and peanuts: chop these and mix them together. A bunch of cannabis sativa can be pulverized. This along with the spices should be dusted over the mixed fruit and nuts, kneaded together. About a cup of sugar dissolved in a big pat of butter. Rolled into a cake and cut into pieces or made into balls about the size of a walnut, it should be eaten with care. Two pieces are quite sufficient.
The legend of Toklas ascended yet further with the arrival of “I Love You, Alice B. Toklas!,” a 1968 film starring Peter Sellers, whose character devours hash brownies and marries a hippie instead of his bride. The silver screen’s portrayal of pot brownies immortalized them in cannabis cultures across the globe.
Tools & Accessories
A pipe designed for vaporizing cannabis concentrates, sometimes referred to as an oil rig, vapor rig, or concentrate pipe. Similarly to a bong, a dab rig filters concentrate vapor through water at the base. In addition to the central piece, dab rigs require a glass, quartz, ceramic, or titanium nail, or banger, to hold or “dab” concentrate, a dabber tool, and a torch lighter for proper heating.
What Are Dab Rigs?
A dab rig is the chamber of a glass pipe, connected to a nail or banger, used for dabbing, in the place of a traditional bowl typically found on a bong. New dabbers may be overwhelmed at the technique, upfront cost, and number of accessories required to use dab rigs and pipes. But they may also appreciate the strong, streamlined effects and heavy terpene flavors that concentrates and dab rigs provide.
Once you get the dabbing process down, using a dab rig can be easy and efficient. The key steps are simple: heating the nail with a torch, placing a dab of concentrate in the nail, and inhaling the resulting vapor.
The modern-day dab pipe typically includes the glass piece, a nail, a dabber, a torch, and a carb cap. Carb caps have become popular accessories because they allow the user to dab at lower temperatures and hold vapor in the nail for a longer time. If you want to find the perfect dab rig for your concentrate consumption needs, several considerations should be made before a purchase.
A dab mat (also known as a dab pad) is a mat placed underneath a dab rig in order to protect the surface from any residue that may drip off the dab nail.
What is a Dab Mat for?
The primary purpose of dab mats is to protect the surface, like a table, from dripping residue. A dab mat also cushions a rig from scratching or breaking, and it can be a great place to put your dabber when it’s not in use.
A pointed tool used in the dabbing process. Dabbing tools are used to pick up a dab of cannabis concentrate, such as wax, shatter or BHO, and apply it to a heated surface on an oil rig pipe.
What Is a Dabber Tool?
A dabber tool is an elongated object with a sharp point at the end. Dabbers are generally constructed from glass or stainless steel metal and can increase the safety and neatness of your dabbing experience.
What Is a Dabber Used For?
Dabbing utensils serve as a protective barrier between your bare hands and the heated surface, preventing you from getting burned while you’re dabbing. A dabber can be compared to a cooking utensil like metal tongs that a chef uses to pick up a hot potato. The dabber serves the same purpose with a different object.
How Do You Use a Dabbing Tool?
Apply your dabbing tool directly to the nail inside the dome of your torch and inhale. Rotate the tip a bit to catch any excess oil and prevent it from dripping. Exhale and enjoy.
Short for electronic nail, an e-nail is a dabbing device that is digitally controlled and lets the user set and maintain a precise temperature on a dab rig.
What is an e-nail?
An e-nail is a dabbing device that contains a controller box that delivers heat to the nail. The controller box on the electric nail dabber allows the user to regulate the temperature of the e-nail with the touch of a button. Temperature regulation provides a more balanced and consistent smoking experience.
How do you use an e-nail?
An electric dab rig is easy to use because it is designed to be automatically controllable. Simply plug your e-nail into a power source, turn on, and set your desired temperature. Season the e-nail and start dabbing!
The heating element in a vape pen that converts the cannabis e-liquid into the vapor that you inhale. The term “atomizer” may also be a broad reference to the unit that contains the heating e-coils and wick. There are different types of atomizers that vary in their levels of effectiveness, and that have different sets of pros and cons. Drip tip atomizers require making frequent drops of e-liquid (about 3 drops for every 3 puffs) which gives them a reputation of being thorough yet high maintenance.
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